References in Alphabetical Order




The references are placed here for the convenience of web users.  However, the preferred term is to Bibliography.  The full set of bibliographic details (references) can be found in the section under bibliography.   [Jump to full Bibliography]

Acharya AB.  Accuracy of predicting 18 years of age from mandibular third molar development in an Indian sample using Demirjian’s ten-stage criteria.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2011; 125(2): 227-233. 

Ackroyd R, Lucy D, Pollard A, Roberts C.  Nasty, brutish, but not necessarily short: a reconsideration of the statistical methods used to calculate age at death form adult human skeletal and dental indicators.  American Antiquity. 1999; 64: 55-70.  

Agnihotri AK, Kachhwaha S, Googoolye K, Allock A. Estimation of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions by regression analysis in Indo-Mauritian population.  Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  2011; 18: 167-172.

Akpata ES. Molar tooth attrition in a selected group of Nigerians. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 1975:3:132-135. doi: 10.1111/j1600-0528.1975.tb00294.x 

Alanen P.  Risks in risk definitions.  Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 1999; 27: 394-397.

An Age of Uncertainty. Inquiry into the treatment of individuals suspected of people smuggling offences who say they are children. Australian Human Rights Commission 2012.

Al Qahtani SJ, Hector MP, Liversidge HM.  Brief communication: The London Atlas of human tooth development and eruption. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2010; 142: 481-490.

AlQahtani SJ, Hector MP, Liversidge HM.  Accuracy of dental age estimation charts. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2014; 154: 70-78.

Al-Qattan SI, Elfawal MA.  Significance of teeth lead accumulation in age estimation.  Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2010; 17: 325-328.

Altman DG.  Practical Statistics for Medical Research.  1991. Chapman & Hall. London ISBN 0-412-27630-5

Altman D. The scandal of poor medical research.  British Medical Journal.  1994; 308: 283-284.

Altonen M, Heikkila M, Mattila K.  A comparative study of radiation doses received during examinations with the Pantomograph, Orthopantomograph, Panorex, Status X, and conventional Roentgen apparatus.  Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. 1974; 70: 67-74. 

Al-Tuwirqi, Holcombe T, Seow WK.  A study of dental development in a Caucasian population compared with a non-Caucasian population.  European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry.  2011;  12: 26-30. 

Anderson DL, Thompson GW, Popovitch F.  Age of attainment of mineralization stages of the permanent dentition. Journal of Forensic Science.  1976; 21(1): 191-200. 

Antoine D, Hillson S, Dean MC.  The developmental clock of dental enamel: a test for periodicity of prism cross striations in modern humans and an evaluation of the most likely sources of error in histological studies of this kind.  Journal of Anatomy.  2009; 214: 45-55. 

Arany S, Iino M, Yoshioka N.  Radiographic survey of third molar development in relation to chronological age among Japanese juveniles. Journal of Forensic Science. 2004; 49(3): 534-538.

Aynsley-Green A. Unethical age assessment.  British Dental Journal.  2009; 206(7): 337.

Aynsley-Green A, Cole TJ, Crawley H, Lessof N, Boag LR, Wallace RMM. Medical, statistical, ethical and human rights considerations in the assessment of age in children and young people subject to immigration control. British Medical Bulletin. 2012; 101: 17-42.

Baccetti T, Franchi L, Mcnamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthodontist.  2002; 72: 316-323.

Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of optimal treatment timing in dentofacial orthopedics.  Seminars in Orthodontics. 2005; 11: 119 – 129.  [idno 301]  [pdf no]

Bagherpour A, Anbiaee N, Partovi P, Golestani S, Afzalinosob S.  Dental Age Assessment of young Iranian adults using third molars: a multivariate regression study. Journal of forensic and Legal Medicine.  2012; 19(7): 407-412. [pdf]  [idno 225]

Baghdadi ZD, Pani SC.  Accuracy of population specific Demirjian curves in the estimation of dental age of Saudi children.  International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry.  2012; 22: 125-131. [pdf]  [idno DOI:  10.1111/J.1365-263X.2011.01179.x

Balaraj BM, Nithin MD.  Determination of adolescent ages 14-16 years by radiological study of permanent second molars.  Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  2010; 17: 329-332. [pdf] [idno 124]

Balwant R, Anand SC. Tooth Developments.  An accuracy of age estimation of radiographic methods.  World Journal of Medical Sciences.  2006; 1(2): 130-132.  [pdf]  [idno 69]

Balwant R, Kaur J, Jafarzadah H. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in an Iranian population. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  2010; 17: 309-311.  [pdf]  [idno 67]

Bar-Hillel M. The base rate fallacy in probability judgements.  Acta Psychologica.  1980; 44: 211-233.  [pdf]  [idno 264]

Baroni C, Venturino E.  On the numerical evaluation of Cauchy transforms.  Numerical Algorithms. 1993; 5: 429-436.  [pdf]  [idno 132].

Bassed RB, Briggs C, Drummer OH.  The incidence of asymmetrical left/right skeletal and dental development in an Australian population and the effect of this on forensic age estimation.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2012; 126(2): 251-257.  DOI 10.1007/S00414-011-0621-2.  [pdf]  [idno 181]

Beunen G, Lefevre J, Ostyn M, Renson R, Simons J, Van Gerven D. Skeletal maturity in Belgian youths assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse method (TW2).  Annals of Human Biology.  1990; 17(5): 355-376.  [pdf]  [idno 131]

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Blastland M, Spiegehalter D.  The NORM chronicles. Stories and numbers about danger. Profile Books Ltd.  London 2013. Chpt 19. ISBN 978-1846686207. [no pdf]  [idno 266]

Blenkin M, Taylor J. Age estimation charts for a modern Australian population.  Forensic Science International. 2012; 221:106-112.  [pdf no]  [idno 288]

Bolanos MV, Manrique MC, Bolanos MJ, Briones MT.  Approaches to chronological age assessment based on dental calcification.  Forensic Science International.  2000; 119: 97-106.  [pdf]  [idno 193]

Bolanos MV, Moussa H, Manrique MC, Bolanos MJ.  Radiographic evaluations of third molar development in Spanish children and young people.  Forensic Science International. 2003; 133: 212-219.  [pdf] [idno 73]

Boonpitaksathit T, Hunt N, Roberts GJ, Petrie A, Lucas VS.     Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in UK Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots. European Journal of Orthodontics     2011; 33(5): 503 – 508. [Epub December 2010] DOI CJQ101.   [pdf]  [idno 3]

Bowerman BL, O’Connell RT, Orris JB, Porter DC.  Essentials of  Business Statistics.  2008. 3rd Edition McGraw Hill. Boston. ISBN 978-0-07-110150-0 [no pdf] [idno 23]

Braga J, Heuze Y, Chabadel O, Sonan NK, Gueramy A.  Non-adult dental age assessment : correspondence analysis and linear regression versus Bayesian predictions.  International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2005; 119: 260-274.  SOI 10.1007/s00414-0494-8   [pdf]  [idno 101]

Brickell C.  The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopaedia of Garden Plants.  1996.  Dorling Kindersley.  London.  p316 & p315. [no pdf]  [idno 247]

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Buken B, Safek AA, Yazici B, Buken E, Mayda AS.  Is the assessment of bone age by the Greulich-Pyle method reliable at forensic age estimation?.  Forensic Science International.  2007; 173(2-3): 146-153.  [pdf]  [idno 133].

Bull RK, Edwards PD,  Kemp PM, Fry S, Hughes IA.  Bone age assessment: a large scale comparison of the Greulich and Pyle , and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW2) methods.  Archives of Disease in Childhood.  1999; 81: 172-173. [pdf] [idno 136]

Cacho L.  Slavery Inc. The untold story of international sex trafficking. Portobello Books  ISBN 978-84627-422-0 [idno 275]

Caldas IM, Julio P, Simoes RJ, Matos E, Afonso A, Magalhaes. Chronological age estimation based on third molar development in the Portuguese population. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2011; 125(2): 235-243. [pdf]  [idno 246]

Cameron N.  Human growth curve, canalization, and catch-up growth. In Human Growth and Development. Ed Noel Cameron. 2002.  Academic Press. London. ISBN 9 780121-56651 X  [no pdf]  [idno  180]

Cameron N.  Prediction. p355.  In Human Growth and Development. Ed Noel Cameron. 2002.  Academic Press. London. ISBN 9 780121-56651 X  [no pdf]  [idno  180]

Cardoso HFV. Environmental effects on skeletal versus dental development: using a documented subadult skeletal sample to test a basic assumption in human osteological research.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology.  2007; 233;  223-233.  [pdf]  [idno 146]

Cardoso HFV, Heuze Y, Julio P.  Secular change in the timing of dental maturation in Portuguese boys and girls.  American Journal of Human Biology.  2010; 22: 791-800. [pdf]  [idno 147]

Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Math D, Cingolani M.  Variations in pulp/tooth area ratio of age:  a preliminary study.  Journal of Forensic Science.  2004; 49(2): 1-3.  [pdf]  [idno 143]

Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Cingolani M. Age estimation in children by measurement of open apices in in teeth. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2006;120: 49-52. [pdf]  [idno 214] doi:10.1007/s00414-005-0047-9.

Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Liversidge HM, Prieto JL, Brkic H. Accuracy of age estimation in children using radiograph of developing teeth. Forensic Science International.  2008; 176: 173-177. [pdf] [idno 74]

Cameriere R, Ferrante D, De Angelis D, Scarpion F, Galli F.  The comparison between measurement of open apices of third molars and Demirjian stages to test chronological age of over 18 year olds in living subjects.  International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2008; 122: 493-497.  [pdf]  [idno 144] DOI.10.1007/s00414-008-0279-6

Cameriere R, De Luca S, De Angelis D, Merelli V, Giuliodori A, Cingolani M. et al. Reliability of Schmeling’s stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2012; 126: 923-932.

Casey C, Gill D, Jones SP. A comparison of skeletal maturation in patients with tooth agenesis and unaffected controls assessed by the cervical vertebral maturation  (CVM) index.  Journal of Orthodontics 2013;40: 286-298. [idno 293] [pdf yes]

Caulfield C.  Multiple Exposures.  Chronicles of the Radiation Age. Secker and Warburg. London.  1989. ISBN0-436-09478-9 [no pdf] [idno 30]

Chaillet N, Demirjian A.  Dental maturity in south France: a comparison between Demirjian’s method and polynomial functions.  Journal of Forensic Science. 2004: 49(5): 1059-1066. [pdf]  [idno 68]

Chaillet N, Willems G, Demirjian A. Dental maturity in Belgian children using Demirjian’s method and polynomial functions: new standard curves for forensic and clinical use. Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology.  2004; 22(2): 18-27. [pdf]  [idno 75]

Chaillet N, Nystrom M, Demirjian A.  Comparison of dental maturity in children of different ethnic origins: International maturity curves for clinicians.  Journal of Forensic Science 2005; 50(5): 1-11. JFS2005020  [pdf]  [idno 100]

Chase E.  Agency and silence: young people seeking asylum alone in the UK.  British Journal of Social Work.  2010; 40: 2050-2068.  [pdf]  [idno 142]

Chattopadhyay A. Forensic statistics in health sciences.  Chapter 14 in Digital Forensics for the Health Sciences. 2011. Ed Anriani Daskalaki.  ISBN 978-1-60960-483-7  [no pdf] [idno 280]

Chudasama PN, Roberts GJ, Lucas VS.     Dental Age Assessment (DAA): A study of a Caucasian population at the 13 year threshold. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2012; 19: 22-28.    [pdf]  [idno 6]

Clark DH. Practical Forensic Odontology. 1992.  Wright. London. ISBN 9 780723 615118 [no pdf]  [idno 60]

Claus EB, Calvocoressi L, Bondy ML, Schildkraut JM, Wiemels JL, Wrensch M.  Dental x-rays and risk of meningioma.  Cancer. 2012; ??: ??-??.  [pdf]  [idno 141]  DOI 10.1002/CNRC.26625

Cole TJ.  Hot potato topic.  British Dental Journal.  2008; 11; 581. [pdf]  [idno 145]

Cole T.  People smugglers, statistics and bone age. Significance 2012. June: 8-12.  [pdf]  [idno 138]

Cruz-Landeira A, Linares-Argot J, Martinez-Rodriguez M, Rodriguez-Calvo MS, Otero XL, Conchero L.  Dental age estimation in Spanish and Venezuelan children.  Comparison of Demirjian and Chaillet’s scores.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2010; 124: 105-112. [pdf]  [idno 209]

Cunha E, Baccino E, Martrille L, Ramsthaler F, Prieto J, Schuliar Y, Lynnerup N, Cattaneo C.  The problem of aging human remains and living individuals: a review. Forensic Science International.  2009; 193: 1-13. 

Curran JM. Is forensic science the last bastion of resistance against statistics?.  Science and Justice. 2013; 53:253-252.

Dalitz G. Age determination of adult human remains by teeth examination. Journal of Forensic Science. 1962; 3: 11-21.

Daniel WW.  Biostatistics. 2005. 8th Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.  Georgia State University. ISBN  0 471 45654 3

Dawkins R. The Greatest Show on Earth. 2009.  Black Swan London. ISBN978-0-552-77524-3. p13

Dhanjal KS, Bhardwaj MK, Liversidge HM.  Reproducibility of radiographic stage assessment of third molars.  Forensic Science International 2006; 159(Suppl 1): S74-77.  

Demirjian A, Goldstein H, Tanner JM.  A New System of Dental Age Assessment.  Human Biology. 1973; 45(2): 211-227.

Demirjian A, Goldstein H.  New systems for dental maturity based on seven and four teeth.  Annals of Human Biology.  1976; 3: 411-421.  

Demirjian A, Buschang PH, Tenguay T, Patterson DK. Interrelationships among measures of somatic, skeletal, dental, and sexual maturity. American Journal of Orthodontics. 1985: 88; 433-438.   doi:10.1016/0002-9416(85)90070-3.

Deodati A, Cianfarani S.  Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.  British Medical Journal.  2011; 342: 636.

De Salvia A, Calzetta C, Orrico M, De Leo D. Third mandibular molar radiological development as an indicator of chronological age in a European population.  Forensic Science International.  2004; 146S: S9-S12. [pdf]  [idno 92]

Eid RM, Simi R, Friggi MN, Fisberg M. Assessment of dental maturity of Brazilian children aged 6 to 14 years using Demirjian’s method.  International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry.  2002; 12: 423-428. [pdf]  [idno 76]

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Ferrante L, Cameriere R.  Statistical methods to assess reliability of measurements in the procedures for forensic age estimation.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2009; 123: 277-283.  [pdf]  [idno 237]   DOI  10.1007/S00414;009-0349-4

Fleiss JL.   The statistical basis of meta-analysis. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 1993: 2: 121-145. [pdf]  [idno 82]

Flood SJ, Mitchell WJ, Oxnard CE, Turlach BA, McGeachie J.  To evaluate the utility of smaller sample sizes when assessing dental maturity curves for forensic age estimation.  Journal of Forensic Science.  2011; 56(6): 1604-1609. [pdf]  [idno 170]

Flood SJ, Franklin D, Turlach BA, McGeachie J.  A comparison of Demirjian’s four dental development methods for forensic age estimation in Sout Australian sub-adults.  Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.  2013; 20: 875-883. [pdf no]  [idno 292]

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Gaethofs M, Verdonck A, Carels C, De Zegher F.  Delayed dental age in boys with constitutionally delayed puberty.  European Journal of Orthodontics.  1999; 21: 711-715. [pdf]  [idno 157]

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Galic I, Vodanovic M, Cameriere R, Nakas E, Galic E, Selimovic E, Brkic H.  Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.  International Journal of Legal Medicine.  2011; 125(2): 315-21.   DOI 10.1007./s00414-010-0515-8  [pdf]  [idno 205]

Galic I, Vodanovic M, Jankovic S, Milhanovic F, Nakas E, Prohic S, Galic E, Brkic H.  Dental age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovinian children aged 6 to 14 years: evaluation of Chailett’s international maturity standards.  Journal of forensic and Legal Medicine.  2013; 20: 40-45. [pdf]  [idno 234]

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Gustafson G. Age determination on teeth.  Journal of the American Dental Association.  1950; 41: 45-54 [pdf]  [idno 90]

Gustafson G, Koch G. Age estimation up to 16 years of age based on dental development.  Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society.  1974; 25: 297-306. [pdf]  [idno 91]

Haavikko K. The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of permanent teeth. Suomen Hammaslaken Toimen. 1970; 66: 103-170. [pdf]  [ idno 81 ]

Haavikko K. Tooth formation age estimated on a few selected teeth.  Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society.  1974; 70: 15-19. [pdf]  [idno 149]

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Harris EF.  Statistical applications in dental anthropology. Chapter 3 in Technique and Application in Dental Anthropology. 2008. Editors Joel D Irish & Greg C Nelson. Cambridge University Press.  Cambridge UK ISBN 978-0-521-87061-0. [no pdf]  [idno 231]

Haselden K, Hobkirk JA, Goodman JR, Jones SP, Hemmings KW.  root resorption in retained deciduous canine and molar teeth without permanent successors in patients with severe hypodontia. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry.  2001; 11: 171-178.  [pdf]  [ idno 158 ]

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Hauspie RC, Molinari L.  Parametric models for postnatal growth.  Chapter 8. in Methods in Human Growth Research. Editors: Roland C Hauspie, Noel Cameron, & Luciano Molinari. 2004. Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 0 521 82050 2. [no pdf[  [idno 179]

Healy MJR, Goldstein H.  An approach to the scaling of categorized attributes.  Biometrika.  1976; 63(2): 219-229.  [pdf]  [idno 160]

Hegde RJ, Sood PB.  Dental maturity as an indicator of chronological age: radiographic evaluation of dental age in 6 to 13 years children of Belgaum using Demirjian methods.  Journal of the Indian Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry Society.  2002; 20(4): 132-138. [pdf]  [idno 219]

Hess AF, Lewis JM, Roman B. A radiographic study of calcification of the teeth from birth to adolescence.  Dental cosmos.  1932; 74:1053-1061. [pdf]  [idno 162]

Himes JH. Why study child growth and maturation? Chapter 1 in Methods in Human Growth Research. Editors: Roland C Hauspie, Noel Cameron, & Luciano Molinari. 2004. Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 0 521 82050 2. [no pdf[  [idno 178]

Hunt EE, Gleiser I.  The estimation of age and sex of preadolescent children from bones and teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.  1955; 13(3): 479-487. [pdf]  [idno 232]

Hunter John.  Letter to Edward Jenner.  2nd August 1775.  in AJ Harding Rains – Letters from the past:  from John Hunter to Edward Jenner.  1976.  [no pdf]  [idno 78]

Introna F, Santoro V, De Donno A, Belviso M.  Morphologic analysis of third molar maturity by digital orthopantomographic assessment.  The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology.  2008; 29(1): 55-61. [pdf]  [idno 190]

Ionnidis J, Patsopoulos N, Rothstein H.  Reasons or excuses for avoiding meta-analysis in forest plots.  2008; 336: 1413-1415. [pdf]  [idno 192]

Johan NA, Khamis MF, Jamal A, Ahmad B, Mahanani ES. The variability of lower third molar development in Northeast Malaysian population with application to age estimation.  Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology. 2012; 30(1): 45-54.  [pdf]  [idno 164]

Jayaraman J, Roberts GJ, King NM. Dental age assessment of southern Chinese using the United Kingdom Caucasian Reference Data Set. Forensic Science International (Submitted     October 2011)    [pdf]  [idno 8]

Jayaraman J, Roberts GJ. Secular trends in the maturation of permanent teeth in 5 year old children Pediatric Dentistry. Submitted     10 March 2012.     [pdf] [no pdf yet!]     [idno 10]

Jaffe EC, Roberts GJ, Chantler C, Carter JE.       Dental maturity in children with chronic renal failure assessed from dental panoramic tomographs.     Journal of the International Association of Dentistry for Children. 1990; 20: 54-58. [pdf] [idno 13]

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